The Realms Of Proteins, Peptides And Amino Acids

Proteins are made of simpler structures called amino acids. A chain of amino acids is known as peptides. When two or more amino acids are joined together by a bond, then the resultant structure is termed as a peptide bond. A covalent bond unites two amino acids by means of an amide linkage, this kind of a structure is termed as a dipeptide. A dipeptide linkage is the result of the removal of water from the α-carboxylic group and α- amino group of the two basic amino acids.

A condensation reaction brings out the resultant dipeptide bond between the amino acids. In the case of a tripeptide bond, three amino acids are joined together by utilizing two peptide bonds. Following similar patterns, amino acids can be connected to form diverse structures such as tetrapeptides and so on. An oligopeptide structure results when amino acids are connected following this pattern. When many numbers of amino acids are connected together, then the resulting structure is called polypeptide. Proteins can thus be termed as a polymer of amino acids.

Though the two terms proteins and polypeptides are used interchangeably, low molecular weight structures are termed as polypeptides. Proteins tend to have greater molecular weights.
Proteins are larger sequences of amino acids with more than 50 molecules whereas peptides comprise of less than 50 amino acid sequences. Peptides are classified based on its mode of synthesis. The enzymatic breakdown of milk protein results in the formation of milk peptides. Fermentation of milk results in the production of proteinases by the bacteria lactobacilli which in turn forms the milk peptides.

Milk peptides contribute to antihypertensive effects in animal research studies. The translation of messenger RNA results in the synthesis of ribosomal peptides through proteolysis. The ribosomal peptides function as signaling molecules and hormones. The non-ribosomal peptides such as glutathione are produced by enzymes specific to the peptide. Glutathione is an important component of the functional antioxidants. Peptones obtained by the proteolytic digestion of milk or meat is used to cultivate bacteria and fungi. Peptone is an important constituent of the nutrient media used for the growth of microorganisms.

Biologically active peptides and polypeptides are those peptides that are found in living cells which perform an array of biochemical functions. These biologically active peptides comprise of more than two thousand amino acid residues. Smaller biologically active peptides such as oxytocin, thyrotropin, bradykinin are more functional and perform several important functions. Larger biologically active peptides such as insulin, corticotrophin and glucagon also perform varied biochemical functions. Peptides are now gaining immense prominence in the field of molecular biology owing to their varied functional attributes.

The brings about a detailed description of the proteins and peptides through the portals of Peptides contribute to the production of peptide antibodies by eliminating the need for protein purification. These peptide antibodies are used in several molecular researches on animals. Many studies on the structure, composition and functions of protein are carried out with the help of peptides. Thus, with the growing need of peptides for research, it is imperative to focus on an economical way to obtain peptides for high-end accomplishments.

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Shopping Tips

Choosing Clothes For Your Body Type

You can dress confidently if you are aware of your body type. The body shape of a woman can be divided into four categories, dense in the waist can be called circle, larger at the bottom is triangle, curvy figure with even proportion is called hourglass and straight up and down is called rectangle. Depending on the four body types, clothes can be designed to expose your contours. It is time to go fashion shopping once you zero on your bodyline. Take some tips from–London-Fashion-Week-Facts–Figures, before starting your shopping.

There are some truly flatter clothes for circular body types. Women who gain weight in the middle prefer to hide those extra pounds under loose fitting clothing. The stomach has to be concealed and if you have thin limbs you can expose them. Some of the things to avoid are high raise pants, waits hugging tops and belts. Slim cut pants can make you look long and lean and you can pair it with tunic or blousy tops. Shift dress can give structured look that makes you look slim especially in places that are too thick. Team it with high heels. Tunics are right to cover the stomach. The style can go well with long pleated sleeves. Empire waist top can relax you waist line and throw light on the rib cage.

If your torso and shoulders are narrow than the hips then you fall into the Triangle category. Some of the styles to avoid include oversized sweater, slim fit jeans and pants and flimsy skirts or any figure hugging fabric. The best would be to wear a wide leg pants for that long and slender silhouette. Tailored jackets with some work on the shoulders can even the body proportion. Boat-neck top can widen the neckline to project your hips. A line skirts are suitable for triangle body types. It does not cling to the body.

Perfect chest, full and narrow waist and evenly proportionate from all angles is the perfect hourglass figure. Pick clothes that work best to project the natural curves. Some of the dresses to avoid include shapeless boxy style, tunics, baby doll dresses or large cardigans. High waist pants to draw the attention to the thin middle is suitable for hourglass types. A wrap dress with a diagonal movement could be an eye-catcher. V shaped neckline with flattering curves could be exaggerating on these body types. Pencil skirt with a classic silhouette is perfectly exposes the waist.

The straight figure is mostly termed as boyish. The best outfit would be that fits the middle but flares at the bottom. Some of the clothes to avoid includes tights all over or too much of flow or unstructured waist line. Boot cut pants with slim fit at the hips widening at the hems is perfect. Fitting blazer with a tight waist can expose your full hips. Wispy sleeves can add highlight your bust and the shoulders. The waist look smaller and the body contours are accentuated. Flared skirt with flouncy hemline tapering at the waist is ideal for rectangle shaped body.

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